Gender-political situation in Denmark
- Gender equality law
- Anti-discrimination law
- Laws on quotas, above all in the political and economic fields
- Other laws/statutory regulations and government programmes
- NGOs: political parties, civil society organisations
- Governments, Ministries
- Other gender actors
In general gender equality is not a major theme in the Danish policy debate. There is a lack of consciousness on the severely different consequences for women and men the culture, legislation and political themes and discussions might have. It is a fact that all legislation on gender equality in Denmark has been initiated from EU Directives. Compared to the other Nordic countries Denmark is behind both regarding policy, allocated resources and the level of debates.
During the last couple of years some concrete issues have characterised the debate, such as earmarked parental leave for fathers, quotas for female leaders on boards, prohibiting the buying of prostitutes, the lapse of boys in the educational system and the cultural submission of migrant women.
The policies on gender equality are focused on dialogue for change instead of rules and rights. The themes are boys and education, migrant women, gender mainstreaming the public sector, female leaders, men's inequality issues and women's rights on a global level.
In Denmark there is a severe lack of concrete gender equality objectives in most ministries, and the demand on all the ministries to formulate at least one measurable objective on gender equality including introduction of adequate measures would both force the politicians and the administration to work strategically and professionally with this area. One problem could be that instead of integrating gender impact assessment in all the work, the focus would be at the formulated objective only.
[Source: Charlotte Kirkegaard (2014). Gender Impact Assessment in Denmark. p. 5 (In English)]
Two major negative tendencies with regards to the situation in Denmark are that the work for women’s right has stagnated, especially with regards to legislation, and that the funding for NGO’s as well as the institutional bodies for equal rights is deficient. The good intentions of the centre-left government which came to power in September 2011 have yet to be backed by concrete actions. Gender mainstreaming has not been implemented effectively and is rarely used as a tool to promote equality. Gender mainstreaming of tax reforms has been delayed.
[Source: Country profile “Denmark” of the European Women’s Lobby p. 18 (in English)]
The approach taken by scientists, civil society and the international community of states is to praise Denmark’s achievements in gender equality policy and point out areas where further action is needed.
Being a Scandinavian welfare state, Denmark provides incentives through its welfare system for both genders to be able to pursue gainful employment: the system is less oriented towards the man being the breadwinner of the family and more towards the principle of the individual. On a European scale, Denmark currently boasts the highest employment rate for women. However, even in a country like Denmark, having children and a career is not a matter of course for women, and the gender pay gap persists. Despite having employment, women are still primarily responsible for performing unpaid work for their family and household.
Nevertheless: Denmark is the fifth best country in the world for gender equality according to the World Economic Forum's Global Gender Gap 2014 report. Moving up from eighth to fifth place, Denmark made it an across-the-board sweep by the Nordic nations, with Iceland, Finland, Norway and Sweden taking the top four spots.
Gender equality law
Government structures for gender policy have been in existence in Denmark since the 1960s. In 1965, the government at that time set up a commission for the “status of women in society”. Its task was to examine the situation of women in “modern society” with a view to proposing legislative initiatives to promote gender equality. In its final report published in 1974, the commission recommended that a permanent council for equal opportunities be set up at governmental level.
The government followed this recommendation and established the Equal Status Council in 1975 following pressure from Denmark’s women’s movement. This cross-party Council was made up of employers, trade unions and women’s associations. As a body located directly under the remit of the Prime Minister, the Council had high symbolic status but no specific means of imposing sanctions.
In 2000 the Danish law on gender equality was passed obtaining a demand on the public sector that all public planning and management should include a gender perspective and secure gender equality. The enforcement of the law has since been unsystematic and during some time, almost neglected. The main strategy in the public sector was for a long period focused only on personnel and promotion strategies of women and men. The focus on the substantial policies and progress for men and women has slowly increased during the last couple of years, but there is a lack in general of political demand and concrete knowledge of the area.
[Source: Charlotte Kirkegaard (2014). Gender Impact Assessment in Denmark. p. 3 (In English; link)]
For example, in 2007, the Danish parliament approved the Act on Gender Equality (in force since 2000, with the Equality Act of May 2000; Notification of law No. 1095 of 19 September 2007). It formally introduces gender mainstreaming by act in all public planning and decision-making.
[Source: European Institut for Gender Equality – EIGE (2013). „Gender Equality Index: Country Profiles.” p. 31 (In English)]
The Government decided in 2013 to focus on the implementation of gender equality in the law processes, since the number of laws which was actually assessed from a gender perspective was remarkable low. Only 6 out of almost 200 laws was analysed and assessed from a gender sensitive perspective. New tools was introduced at the website and all the ministries was offered a workshop to introduce both the gender sensitive approach as a qualitative strategy of general improvement and how to use the normal procedures in law preparation with a gender perspective. The problem is that it is late in the process only to consider the impact of the law from a gender perspective when the law is about to pass in the Parliament, but the workshops included the gender perspective in such ways that the ministries was encouraged to start collecting own data and research in order to implement the gender perspective earlier in the process. It is the ministries who have the responsibility to implement the gender perspective in their work and the Ministry of Gender Equality offers support and tools only to a sudden extend.
[Source: Charlotte Kirkegaard (2014). Gender Impact Assessment in Denmark. p. 4 (In English)]
The Act on Equal Treatment between Men and Women as regards Employment and Occupation was amended with effect from 8 March 2013, in order to implement Council Directive 2010/18/EU of 8 March 2010 implementing the revised Framework Agreement on parental leave concluded by BUSINESSEUROPE, UEAPME, CEEP and ETUC and repealing Directive 96/34/EC. The amended Act entitles parents to request flexible working arrangements when returning after a break due to parental leave. In addition, the law specifies that the protection of pregnancy, childbirth or adoption not only applies to dismissal, but also covers less favourable treatment, and that the rules on the burden of proof also apply to this situation. At the same time it states that less favourable treatment obligates the employer to pay compensation.
[Source: European Commission (2013) (publ.). European Gender Equality Law Review, No. 2/2013, p. 48. (in English)]
On 14 December 2012, the Danish Parliament adopted an amendment to the Gender Equality Act and an amendment to the Companies Act and certain other laws putting the model for more women in management into effect. The amendment to the Gender Equality Act mainly concerns Sections 11 and 12 of the Act on the gender composition of boards in the public sector.
The amendment to the Companies Act and certain other laws introduced new provisions into Danish company legislation requiring the approximately 1 100 largest Danish companies to establish targets for the number of the underrepresented sex on the main governing body (board of directors and the like). Each company must set concrete targets that are realistic and ambitious for the company itself. They must have a policy for increasing the number of the underrepresented sex at company management levels generally. Each company must create the proper basis for recruitment of female managers based on the company's specific needs and ideas. Companies must clarify the status of compliance with the set targets in their annual report including, where appropriate, why the company has not reached its objective. In addition, the companies must disclose in the annual report how the policy is implemented, and what has been achieved.
[Source: European Commission (2013) (publ.). European Gender Equality Law Review, No. 1/2013, p. 62f. (In English)]
The Danish acts on discrimination distinguish between natural persons and legal persons, and state that only natural persons are protected against direct or indirect discrimination. Discrimination based on association with an individual is explicitly covered by the Act on Ethnic Equal Treatment. Discrimination based on association is not mentioned in the wording of the Act on the Prohibition of Discrimination in the Labour Market but it is covered according to case law.
Direct discrimination is defined as a situation where one person is treated less favourably than another is, has been or would be treated in a comparable situation on grounds of racial or ethnic origin (cf. Section 1(2) of the Act on the Prohibition of Discrimination in the Labour Market and Section 3 (2) of the Act on Ethnic Equal Treatment). Indirect discrimination is deemed to occur where an apparently neutral provision, criterion or practice would put persons of e.g. a particular racial or ethnic origin at a disadvantage compared with other persons, unless that provision, criterion or practice is objectively justified by a legitimate aim and the means of achieving that aim are appropriate and necessary (cf. the main Section 1(3) of the Act on the Prohibition of Discrimination in the Labour Market and Section 3(3) of the Act on Ethnic Equal Treatment).
Harassment, instruction to discriminate and victimisation are also prohibited by the Act on the Prohibition of Discrimination in the Labour Market as well as by the Act on Ethnic Equal Treatment.
In 2007, there was a change of the legislation, so authorities and organisations who have to nominate members of committees set up by ministers must nominate both a woman and a man.
Women are certainly well represented in Danish politics in the absence even of mandated government quotas, and whilst the number of women dwindles when you descend to municipal level politics (by almost half) it is nonetheless an impressive claim to fame in a field typically dominated by men. The Social Democrats party, for example, still includes gender quotes in their statutes.
The Danish parliament has in December 2012 adopted two proposals to amend relevant legislation in order to counteract the gender imbalance in boardrooms. The 1 100 companies (listed companies, state-owned companies, state institutions and commercial foundations) will be required to set target figures of the number of under-represented gender on corporate boards. The companies will have to report annually on their target figures and progress in a report which will be publicly available.
[Source: European Institut for Gender Equality – EIGE (2013). „Gender Equality Index: Country Profiles.” p. 31 (In English)]
National Action Plans on Gender Equality
In Denmark each year, the guidelines for a Danish gender equality policy are presented to the Danish parliament in the Minister for Gender Equality’s Report related to the past year and in the action plan for the coming year. Each year the National Action Plan on Gender Equality focus on several areas of concern.
The following document provides an overview of the action plans since 2005: European Institut for Gender Equality – EIGE (2013). „Gender Equality Index: Country Profiles.” (In English; link: http://eige.europa.eu/apps/gei/content/Gender-Equality-Index-Country-Pro..., p. 31).
The 2014 National Action Plan adopted by the Ministry for Children, Equality, Inclusion and Social Conditions (formerly the Ministry for Gender Equality) includes measures against domestic violence and repression and coercion among immigrant girls and boys.
The Perspective and Action Plan 2014 is divided into four areas of action: gender equality as a fundamental right; gender equality in the public sector, theme-based equality, and equality in a global perspective. In each area, a number of concrete initiatives will be taken. Under the heading ‘gender equality as a fundamental right’ the following actions are suggested: limiting the social control of immigrant girls and boys; combating domestic violence and violence in intimate relationships; and fighting human trafficking. Under the heading ‘gender equality in the public sector’ the following actions are suggested: strengthening surveillance of Government efforts regarding equality and increasing the dissemination of knowledge and experience, including across the Nordic region; and increasing the focus on gender in citizen-oriented services. Under the heading ‘theme-based equality’ the following actions are suggested: promoting women in research and management; promoting equal opportunities in the labour market; and breaking down gender-segregated educational choices. Under the heading ‘equality in a global perspective’ the following actions are suggested: proactive Danish participation in worldwide equality work including in the UN; further development of equality cooperation in the EU, and in a Nordic context. Within the Perspective and Action Plan 2014, EUR 5 million (DKK 36 million) has been earmarked for an action plan that focuses on the different types of violence. This applies for example to stalking, violence against men, and relationships with reciprocal violence. The Government will also continue to focus on gender equality in employment. It will implement new legislation that strengthens the gender-divided wage statistics and thus the effort for equal pay.
[Source: European Commission (2014) (publ.). European Gender Equality Law Review, No. 1/2014, p. 52. (In English)]
In the public sector, the effort to develop gender mainstreaming was initiated with an Interministerial Action Plan for 2002–2006, followed by the Action Plan for the Interministerial Gender Mainstreaming Project 2007–2011. The overall priority for the national gender equality work in all ministries has been the implementation of the gender
mainstreaming strategy. Gender mainstreaming as the fundamental principle for gender equality work is affirmed by law in the Act on Gender Equality. The individual ministers, regions and municipalities are responsible for promoting gender equality within their own fields, whereas the function of the Minister for Gender Equality is to coordinate and monitor with respect to the government’s overall gender equality efforts.
[Source: European Institut for Gender Equality – EIGE (2013). „Gender Equality Index: Country Profiles.” p. 31(In English)]
Furthermore, there exists a National Action Plan on specific forms of violence against women, but with no gender analysis.
[Source: Country profile “Denmark” of the European Women’s Lobby p. 18 (in English)]
Biennial reporting obligation for ministries
Every second year the ministries and municipalities are obliged to report on the status and progress on gender equality to the Ministry of Gender Equality and the report system has been improved last year. Still progress is slow and most of the public sector does not work systematically neither professional on improving gender equality. The Ministry of Gender Equality is planning on improving and facilitate the municipalities in order to create motivation, knowledge and examples of best practice to strengthen the local work.
[Source: Charlotte Kirkegaard (2014). Gender Impact Assessment in Denmark. p. 4 (In English)]
NGOs: political parties, civil society organisations
Denmark has a long history of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) actively participating in the work to promote gender equity between women and men. In particular, the Danish Women’s Society and the National Council of Danish Women strive to secure women’s rights and influence throughout society.
One of the main tasks of NGOs is that of a “watchdog”, acting on behalf of public initiatives as well as actively engaging in the public debate in order to promote gender equality.
NGOs and experts often act as consulting bodies for new government initiatives. In this context, the aim is especially to direct attention to the government’s initiatives to combat violence against women and trafficking in women. The execution of projects in the national action plans, with the intention of combating these problems, is realised to a very high degree by the NGOs and experts.
Kvinderådet (Women's Council in Denmark) (in Danish, with individual items in English)
Originally founded in 1899, this is an umbrella organisation for 45 women’s organisations with close to 1 million members. Women’s organisations have played a key role in enforcing democratic and human rights.
The Women's Council is represented in a number of boards, committees and councils and has a long tradition in working with women's issues at all levels.
As a result The Women's Council has taken part in setting up a number of committees and organisations, which have helped to strengthen the position of women. Among these there are The National Observatory on Violence against Women, The Consumer's Council, Save The Children and The Danish Refugee Council.
Women's Council in Denmark
Niels Hemmingsens gade 10, 1153 København, Denmark
Tel.: (+45) 3312 8087
KULU Kvindernes U-landsudvalg (Women and Development) (in Danish, with some English content)
For 37 years KULU - Women and Development(KULU) has been a central player in putting women’s rights and gender equality on the international and Danish development agendas through advocacy, information, and development cooperation in partnership with women’s organisations and networks in the Global South.
KULU–Women and Development is a non-partisan advocacy and development organisation for 23 women´s organisations, women and equality councils of political parties, development NGOs, trade unions, and other civil society organizations and individual members. KULU began working in connection with the first UN International Women’s Conference in 1975 and was officially established in 1976 at the beginning of the UN Decade for Women. KULU has since then been an active contributor to Danish and international development policy and aid discourse and advocacy.
KULU-Women and Development works through information, development education, advocacy and lobby, which is based on networking and dialogue with women´s organisations in Africa, Asia, Latin America and international networks. KULU cooperates strategically in alliances, thematic networks, and projects with Southern partners, linking development education and information work to advocacy and lobby towards politicians and decision-makers.
KULU - vindernes U-landsudvalg
Theklavej 2., 2400 København NV, Denmark
Tel.: +45 33 15 78 70
Fax: +45 33 32 53 30
Dansk Kvindesamfund (The Danish Women's Society) (in Danish)
Danish Women's Society works to achieve genuine gender equality so that all women can express themselves fully in public life, get education, job and family. Thus, they work for the liberation of women from all forms of structural, social and cultural oppression. The goal is to enabling women to achieve self-determination and economic independence, nationally and internationally. They work for women to organize themselves and influence decision-making processes at all political and administrative levels of society. Danish Women's Society has an international perspective and is connected to The International Women’s Alliance.
Member of the government delegation at international conferences.
Niels Hemmingsens Gade 10 , 1153 København K, Denmark
Tel: +45 33 15 78 37
Fagligt Fælles Forbund (trade union) (in Danish)
KAD (unskilled and semi-skilled workers’ union) until 2005, then merged with SiD (unskilled and semi-skilled workers’ union) and RBF (hotel workers’ and catering trade union) to form “Fagligt Fælles Forbund”, in short: “3F” – also committed to the issues of equal opportunities and gender mainstreaming.
The Ministry of Children, Gender Equality, Integration and Social Affairs (formerly Ministry for Gender Equality) (in English)
The Ministry of Children, Gender Equality, Integration and Social Affairs was established on 3rd February 2014 and is responsible for the central administration of the Danish social security and benefits system. The Ministry assists the Minister, the Government and Parliament in the drafting of bills and initiates debates, pilot projects and research that can develop the social area. Moreover, the Ministry attends to Denmark's social policy cooperation with other nations, for instance the conclusion of agreements in the social security area. The Ministry's main responsibilities are policy on disadvantaged children, elderly and disabled people and pensions, marginalized groups such as homeless people, people with mental disorders and drug addicts.
The Ministry is responsible for providing the Minister, the Government and the Danish Parliament with the best possible basis for preparing and developing the welfare society. It is the responsibility of the Ministry to create the framework for the best possible service on the basis of the resources available and with respect for the active participation and background of individual citizens. The Department bases its work on a decentralised public sector and a close interaction with local and regional authorities together with a number of relevant welfare organisations. One of the Ministry's key objectives is to promote efficiency and transparency in the services of the welfare society and to ensure that public services are based on knowledge and evidence. The Department’s main responsibilities: Welfare, Social security, Social protection, Integration, Family law, Gender Equality. The Department monitors and supports local and regional authority development of local government, structure and economy.
The recent Minister of Children, Gender Equality, Integration and Social Affairs is the man Manu Sareen, who was born in India.
Ministry of Children, Gender Equality, Integration and Social Affairs
Holmens Kanal 22
DK-1060 Copenhagen K, Danmark
Tel.: (+45) 33 92 93 00
MR-JÄM (Council of Ministers for Gender Equality) (in Danish, with some English content)
The Nordic governments' co-operation in the area of gender equality is led by the Nordic ministers for gender equality which makes up MR-JÄM. The Nordic countries' joint cultural, historical and democratic traditions allow them to develop a close and constructive partnership in the areas of gender equality.
The following ministers are currently part of the council: Åsa Regnér (Sweden); Camilla Gunell (Åland); Eygló Harðardóttir (Iceland); Johan Dahl (Faroe Islands); Manu Sareen (Denmark); Solveig Horne (Norway); Susanna Huovinen (Finland)
Ved Stranden 18 DK-1061 Köpenhamn K, Denmark
Tel.: +45 33 96 02 00
Fax: +45 33 96 02 02
Ligebehandlingsnævnet (The Board of Equal Treatment) (in Danish)
The Board of Equal Treatment works to secure gender equality by hearing cases of discrimination. It was established in 2009 (to replace what was previously called The Equality Board) and consists of 3 judges and 9 legal members, all part-time employed.
The Board of Equal Treatment deals only with concrete complaints related to discrimination and may award compensation. The Board has no mandate to take up cases on its own initiative. The Board of Equal Treatment is a predominantly quasi-judicial body. Formally deciding on complaints (decision or recommendation) – legally binding. In case of non-compliance with the Board’s decision, the secretariat of the Board of Equal Treatment must – upon the complainant’s request and on his/her behalf – bring the case to court. The Board will however not serve as party to the case, as this will be the complainant.
Activities: Promotional activities aimed at duty bearers (by way of trainings, guidance material, etc.); Promotional activities aimed at potential victims (trainings, awareness raising, etc.); Communication activities; Publications.
The Board of Equal Treatment (in Danish: Ligebehand
Amaliegade 25, Postboks 9080, 1022 København K, Danmark
Tel.: +45 33 411 200
Institut for menneskerettigheder (Danish Institute for Human Rights) (in English)
The Institute is an independent national human rights institution (NHRI), modelled in accordance with the UN Paris Principles, and a national equality body. The institute is part of the Danish Centre for International Studies and Human Rights (DCISM), which also includes a sister institute, the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS). Since 2002, DIHR has carried the mandate as the national equal treatment body, in accordance to the Danish law on equal treatment within the areas of race and ethnicity and since 2011 within the area of gender. The Danish Institute for Human Rights is a predominantly promotion-type and legal support body.
The Danish Institute for Human Rights (DIHR) has been appointed the Danish National Equal
Treatment Body for ethnic equal treatment and gender. This means that DIHR is to promote the equal treatment of all persons irrespective of gender, racial or ethnic origin while making efforts to provide effective protection against discrimination in accordance with EU Directive 2000/43/EC, 2004/113/EC and 2006/54/EC. The principle of equal treatment and non-discrimination is a fundamental principle in promotion of human rights. In its work, DIHR frequently applies the horizontal approach. In practice, this means that the approach of DIHR spans across all grounds of discrimination, taking into account gender, age, disability, sexual orientation, religion and faith, ethnicity and race.
Activities: Promotional activities aimed at duty bearers (by way of trainings, guidance material, etc.); Promotional activities aimed at potential victims (trainings, awareness raising, etc.); Communication activities; Publications and research projects; Data collection and monitoring; Development of new tools to promote diversity and equality.
Danish Institute for Human Rights
Wilders Plads 8K, 1403 Copenhagen K, Denmark
Tel.: +45 32698888
Fax: +45 32698800
The Danish Parliamentary Ombudsman is elected by the Danish Parliament, the Folketing, to investigate complaints about the public administration. The Ombudsman may state criticism and recommend that the authorities reopen a case and perhaps change their decision, but the Ombudsman cannot himself make decisions. The Ombudsman may consider legal questions but not matters which it will require other specialist knowledge. The Ombudsman may also take up cases on his own initiative, such as issues which have been the focus of media attention.
Gammeltorv 22, 1457 København K, Denmark
Tel.: (+45) 33 13 25 12
Fax : (+45) 33 13 07 17
Den tvær-ministerielle styringsgruppe for Gender Mainstreaming projektet og det tværministerielle netværk vedrørende Gender Mainstreamning (Inter-ministerial Gender Mainstreaming Steering Committee and Inter-ministerial Network on Gender Mainstreaming)
The work that led to the first Gender Mainstreaming action plan began in 2001 where an inter-ministerial steering committee was established. In 2002 this committee enacted and announced the first Gender Mainstreaming action plan ("Action plan 2002-2006 - The inter-ministerial Gender Mainstreaming project"). The first Gender Mainstreaming action plan was followed by a second plan (“Action Plan for The Inter-ministerial GM project – 2007-2011) and the steering committee continued to play a crucial role. The second Gender Mainstreaming action plan was followed by the third, and latest, action plan (“The Strategy for future work with gender mainstreaming assessment in the public sector”). The Steering Committee still exist and have now been accompanied by an inter-ministerial Gender Mainstreaming network with representatives from each Ministry.
The Gender Equality Committee in the Danish parliament (in Danish, with some English content)
The Gender Equality Committee is one of the Danish Parliament’s standing committees. It deals with cases concerning gender equality, including both national and international gender equality efforts. The Gender Equality Committee’s remit thus corresponds to that of the Minister who is responsible for gender issues. A number of the issues dealt with by the Committee overlap and interact with those of other committees. The Committee deals with Bills and proposals for parliamentary resolution concerning gender equality, and carries out scrutiny of the Government in this area.
The Gender Equality Committee is a new committee set up in the parliamentary year 2011–12 for the first time. Previously, gender equality issues have not been dealt with by a committee set up specifically for this purpose. In practice, this area had come to be part of the Economic and Political Affairs Committee’s responsibilities.
Folketinget, Christiansborg, 1240 København K, Denmark
Tel.: +45 3337 5500
The Agency performs tasks relating to research and innovation policy and provides secretariat services to and supervises the scientific research councils which allocate funds for independent research, for strategic research and for innovation and which advise the political system.
Forsknings- og Innovationsstyrelsen (The Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation
Copenhagen, Bredgade 40, Zip Code: 1260
Tel.: +45 35446200
Fax: +45 35446201
KVINFO: Køn, Viden, INformation og FOrskning (The Danish Centre for Information on Gender, Equality and Diversity) (in English)
Is a foundation and extensive database covering every women’s and gender issue in Denmark. Is constantly updated and provides valuable information on campaigns.
Christians Brygge 3, 1219 København K
Tel.: (+45) 33 13 50 88
University of Copenhagen: Coordination for Gender Research (in English)
The coordination centre is located in the Sociology Faculty of the University of Copenhagen. The main tasks of the Coordination for Gender Research are:
- To develop gender scholarship as an inter- and transdisciplinary field. This especially involves the integration of gender research into intersecting fields such as cultural research and technoscience. Simultaneously, the goal is to promote dialogue and networks between different areas, tendencies and perceptions within the field of gender research.
- To initiate research strategies in gender research both nationally and internationally. The goal is to push gender research to the fore and make it an obvious part of an innovative university and research profile.
- To communicate the results of gender research to the scientific communities and highlight the field both in society and the media.
Activities af the Coordination for Gender Research: In recent years, the Coordination for Gender Research has hosted conferences on masculinities and mainstreaming, prostitution, welfare, religion, climate change as well as on the strategic perspectives for research both in Denmark and in relation to European research programmes. Furthermore, the Coordination for Gender Research hosts the editorial office of the scientific journal Women, Gender & Research.
The Coordination for Gender Research
Department of Sociology
University of Copenhagen
Øster Farimagsgade 5
DK-1014 Copenhagen K
Tel.: +45 35 32 35 01
University of Copenhagen: The Centre for Gender Studies (in English)
The Centre for Gender Studies is part of the Department of Scandinavian Studies and Linguistics. The purpose of the Centre is to apply an inter-disciplinary perspective to work with respect to the importance of gender within the research fields of humanities. The Centre has broadened its perspective to also include other spheres of inequality such as race, class, sexuality, masculinity, specific identity and ethnicity.
Through analyses, verbal and written dissemination, history lectures and the instrument of a broader perspective, they aim to provide students with a theoretical, practical and academic foundation to enable them to analyse gender in various contexts.
The Centre for Gender Studies
The Department of Scandinavian Studies and Linguistics
DK-2300 S, Denmark
Phone number: +45 35 32 83 11
Aalborg University: FREIA – Gender Research Center (in English)
FREIA – Center for Gender Research – was founded in 1990 as an interdisciplinary research center at Aalborg University, based on 15 years of work in the field of gender study at Aalborg University (for more, see for example FREIA’s Text series no. 2 / 1992 Feminist Research). FREIA is today the oldest and largest Danish research center within the social sciences.
FREIA is a multiple-field research center at the Department of Culture and Global Studies at Aalborg University. Taking its starting point in the field of gender, the researchers at FREIA cover – in both research and teaching – a broad selection of fields in and across sociology, political science, statistics, anthropology, philosophy, history and European, international and post-colonial studies.
Central to FREIA’s research is the examination of the interaction between gender and other differentiating and in-equalizing categories (such as class, ethnicity, race and generation/age). Since 2012 FREIA and EDGE has worked on a shared umbrella-project with a focus on differences, equality and inequality in local, global and (trans)national contexts, for example comparative analysis in Europa, Africa and Asia.
FREIA – Center for Gender Research
Kroghstræde 3, 9220 Aalborg Øst, Denmark
Tel: (+45) 9940 8423
University of Aarhus: Center for Kønsforskning (in Danish)
The Center works in partnership with the Institute of History and Area Studies at Aarhus University, the Women’s Museum in Denmark and the Women’s Collection of the National Library. The aims of the Center are: to make available and inform about the outcomes of gender research and to engage in international exchange.
Center for Kønsforskning, Aarhus Universitet
Bartholins Allé 16, 8000 Århus C., Denmark
Tel.: (+45) 89426464.
Description of state of source material:
state of source material is good. Knowledge of English is very useful. However, once a homepage has been found, it is easy to find references to other actors and information.
Citing of relevant sources
Internet: see relevant institution for references to sources
Leschke, J. & Jepsen ,M. (2014) Is the Economic Crisis Challenging the Prevailing Gender Regime? A Comparison of Denmark, Germany, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom, Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society, December 2014, Vol. 21 Issue 4, S. 485-508.
This study was conducted by Tanja Berger und Pamela Dorsch and comissioned by the Gunda Werner Institute of the Heinrich Böll Foundation in 2010. Last updated late 2014/early 2015.
All images, except marked otherwise: Public Domain CC0