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Masculinities and civil wars / post-conflict societies in Africa

Masculinities and civil wars / post-conflict societies in Africa


Barker, Gary / Ricardo, Christine
2005    Young men and the construction of masculinity in Sub-Saharan Africa, Implications for HIV/AIDS, conflict and violence, Social Development Papers, no. 26, Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, World Bank, Washington D.C.

Breines, Ingeborg / Morrell, Robert / Eide, Ingrid (eds.)
2000    Male roles, masculinities and violence, A culture of peace perspective, UNESCO Publications, Paris.

Cleaver, F. (ed.)
2006    Making men matter, Men, masculinities and gender relations in development, Zed Books, London.

Gibson, D. / Hardon, A. (eds.)
2006    Masculinity, violence and AIDS, Issues related to health, Het Spinhuis, Amsterdam.

Higate, Paul / Henry, Marsha
2009    Insecure spaces, Peacekeeping in Liberia, Kosovo and Haiti, Zed Books, London (July 2009).

Jones, Adam (ed.)
2006    Men of the global South, A reader, Zed Books, London.

Mazrui, Ali (ed.)
1977    The warrior tradition in modern Africa, Brill Publishers, Leiden.

Silberschmidt, Margarete
2004    Masculinities, sexuality and socio-economic change in rural and urban East Africa, in: Arnfred, Signe (ed.): Re-thinking sexuality in Africa, Publications of the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, pp.233-248.


Baaz, Eriksson Maria / Stern, Maria
2008    Making sense of violence, Voices of soldiers in the Congo (DRC), in: Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 46, no. 1, S.57-86.

2009    Why do soldiers rape? Masculinity, violence, and sexuality in the armed forces in the Congo, DRC, in: Inernational Studies Quarterly, vol. 53, S.495-518.

Mechanic, Eli
2004    Why gender still matters, Sexual violence and the need to confront militarized masculinity, A case study of the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Partnership Africa Canada, Ottawa.

Higate, Paul
2004    Gender and peacekeeping, Case studies: The Democratic Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone, ISS Monograph Series, no. 91, Publications of the Institute of Security Studies, Pretoria.

Higate, Paul / Henry, Marsha
1004    Engendering (in)security in peacekeeping operations, in: Security Dialogue, vol. 35, no. 4, S.481-498.

Pype, Katrien
2007   Fighting boys, Strong men and gorillas, Notes on the imagination of masculinities in Kinshasa, in: Africa, vol. 77, no. 2.
Women for Women International

2007    Ending violence against women in Eastern Congo, Preparing men to advocate for women’s rights, Women for Women International, Washington D.C.


Richards, Paul
1995    Rebellion in Liberia and Sierra Leone, A crisis of youth? in: Furley, Oliver (ed.): Conflict in Africa, I.B. Tauris Publishers, London, S.134-170.


Dodoo, F.N.

1998    Men matter, Additive and interactive gender preferences, amd reproductive behaviour in Kenya, in: Demography, 359, 2, pp.229-242.

Hodgson, Dorothy
1999    „Once intrepid warriors“: Modernity and the production of Maasai masculinities, in: Ethnology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp.121-150..

Lamphear, John
1998    Brothers in arms, Military aspects of East African age-class systems in historical perspective, in: Kurimoto, Eisei / Simonse, Simon (eds.): Conflict, age and power in North-East Africa, Age systems in transtition, James Currey, Oxford, pp.79-97.

Silberschmidt, Margrethe
1999    Women forget that men are the masters, Gender antagonism and socio-economic change in Kisii District, Kenya, Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala.

2001    Disempowerment of men in rural and urban East Africa, Implications for male identity and sexual behaviour, in: World Development, vol. 29, no. 4, pp.657-671.

Wood, John Colman
1999    Where men are women: Manhood among the Gabra Nomads of East Africa, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.

White, L.
1990    Separating the men from the boys, Constructing gender, sexuality and terrorism in central Kenya, 1939-1959, in: International Journal of African Historical Studies, 23,4, pp.1-25.


Sommers, Marc
2006a    In the shadow of genocide, Rwanda’s youth challenge, in: McEvoy-Levy, Siobhán (ed.): Trouble makers or peace makers, University of Notre
Dame Press, Notre Dam (Ind.), pp.81-98.

2006b    Fearing Africa’s young men, The case of Rwanda, Social Development Papers, Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, CPR Paper no. 32, The World Bank, Washington D.C.


Higate, Paul

2004    Gender and peacekeeping, Case studies: The Democratic Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone, ISS Monograph Series, no. 91, Publications of the Institute of Security Studies, Pretoria.

Peters, Krijn / Richards, Paul
1998a    “Why we fight”, Voices of youth combatants in Sierra Leone, in: Africa, vol. 68, no. 2, S.183-210.

Richards, Paul
1995    Rebellion in Liberia and Sierra Leone, A crisis of youth? in: Furley, Oliver (ed.): Conflict in Africa, I.B. Tauris Publishers, London, S.134-170.


Keynan, Hassan
2000    Male roles and the making of the Somali tragegy, in: Breines, Ingeborg / Connell, Robert / Eide, Ingrid (eds.): Male roles, masculinities and violence, A culture of peace perspective, UNESCO Publishing, Paris, S.189-199.


Beinart, William
1992    Political and collective violence in Southern African historiography, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 18, no. 3, pp.455-486.

Bhana, Deevia
2005    Violence and gendered negotiations of masculinity among young black school boys in South Africa, in: Ouzgane, Lahoucine / Morrell, Robert (eds.): African masculinities, Men in Africa from the nineteenth century to the present, Palgrave MacMillan, New York, pp.205-220.

Campbell, Catherine
1992    Learning to kill? Masculinity, the family and violence in Natal, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 18, no. 3, pp.614-628.

Conway, Daniel
2005    Masculinity, citizenship and political objection to military service in Apartheid South Africa, in: Gouws, Amanda (ed.): (Un)thinking citizenship, Feminist debates in contemporary South Africa, Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, pp.91-116.

2001    Masculinities, The making of gendered identities, A GETNET guidebook for trainers, Cape Town.

Glaser, Cliffe
1998b    Swines, hazels and the dirty dozen, Masculinity, territoriality, and the youth gangs of Soweto, 1960-1976. In: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 24, no.4, pp.719-736.

Greig, Alan / Peacock, Dean
2005    Men as partners programme, Promising practices guide, Johannesburg.

Kumalo, Bafana
2005    The role of men in the struggle for gender equality, Possibilities for positive engagement, in: Agenda, Special Focus, pp. 88-94.

Le Gaetene, Gange
2004    Taking the bull by the horns, Working with young men on HIV/AIDS in South Africa, in: Ruxton, Sandy (ed.): Gender equality and men, Learning from practice, Oxfam Publications, Oxford, pp.101-112.

Leclerc-Madlala, Suzanne
1997    Infect one, infect all, Zulu youth response to the AIDS epidemic in South Africa, in: Medical Anthropology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp.363-380.

Mehta, Manisha / Peacock, Dean / Bernal, Lisette
2004    Men as partners, Lessons learned from engaging men in clinics and communities, in: Ruxton, Sandy (ed.): Gender equality and men, Learning from practice, Oxfam Publications, Oxford, pp.89-100.

Mankayi, Nyameka / Shefer, Tamara
2005    Masculinities, militarisation and unsafe sexual practices, A case study of a young man in the South African military, in: Agenda, 63, pp.66-78.
Montgomery, Catherine / Hosegood, Victoria et al.

2006    Men’s involvement in the South African family, Engendering change in the AIDS era, in: Social Science and Medicine, vol. 62, 10, pp.2411-2419.

Moffett, Helen
2006    ‘These women, they force us to rape them’, Rape as a narrative of social control in post-apartheid South Africa, in: Journal of Southern African Studies, vol. 32, no. 1, pp.129-144.

Moolman, Benita
2004    The reproduction of an ‘ideal’ masculinity through gang rape on the Cape Flats, Understanding some issues and challenges for effective redress, in: Agenda, 60, pp.109-123.

Morrell, Robert (ed.)
2001    Changing men in Southern Africa, Zed Books, London.

Peacock, Dean
2003 Building on a legacy of social justice activism, Enlisting men as gender justice activists in South Africa, in: Journal of Men and Masculinities, 5, pp.327-330.

2003    Men as partners, Promoting men’s involvement in care and support activities for people living with HIV/AIDS, UN/ILO/UNAIDS, Expert group meeting on ‘The role of men and boys in achiving gender equality, 21-24 Oct 2004, Brasilia, Brasil, EGM/Men-Boys-EP/2003/EP.5, UN/ILO/UNDP/UNAIDS, New York.

2003    Men as partners, South African men respond to violence against women and HIV/AIDS, conference papers.

2005    Urgency and optimism, Masculinities, gender equality and public health, in: Agenda, special focus, pp.146-153.

2006    We exist, Voices of male feminism, in: Wilson, Shamillah / Sengupta, Anasuys / Evans, Kristy (eds.): Defending our dreams, Global feminist voices for a new generation, Zed Books, London.

2007    Work with men, in: Flood, Michael / Gardiner, Judith Kegan et al. (eds.). International Encylopedia of men and masculinities, Routledge, London.

2008    Strategies for increasing men’s involevement in the care economy, presentation, CSW/UN, New York.
Peacock, Dean / Botha, Mbuyiselo

2006    The new gender platforms and fatherhood, in: Richter, Linda / Morrell, Robert (eds.): Baba, Men and fatherhood in South Africa, HSRC Press, Pretoria, pp.281-292.

Peacock, Dean / Kumalo, Bafana / McNab, Eleanor
2006    Men and gender activism in South Africa, Observations, critique and recommendations for the future, in: Agenda, 69, pp. 71-81.
Peacock, Dean / Redpath, J. et al.

2007    Official South African country report, Progress on commitments made at the 2004 United Nations Commission on the Status of Women on implementing recommendations at involving men and boys in achieving gender equality, Office of the Status of Women, Government of South Africa / Commission on the Status of Women, Pretoria/Cape Town/New York.

Peacock, Dean / Weston, Mark
2008    Men and care economy in the context of HIV and AIDS, Structure, political will and greatter male involvement, Paper prepared for the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women expert group meeting on “Equal sharing of responsibilities between men and women, inluding care-giving in the context of HIV/AISD, 6-9 October, 2008, EGM/ESOR/2008/EP.1, DAW/DESA, UN, Geneva/New York.

Ramphele, Mamphela
2000    Teach me how to be a man, An exploration of the definition of masculinity, in: Das, V. et al. (eds.): Violence and subjectivity, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp.102-119.

Reid, Graeme / Walker, Liz (eds.)
2005    Men behaving differently, South African men since 1994, Double Story Books, Cape Town.

Richter, Linda / Morrell, Robert (eds.)
2006    Baba, Men and fatherhood in South Africa, Human Science Research Publications, Pretoria.

Salo, Elaine
2006    Mans is ma soe, Ganging practices in Manenberg, South Africa, and the ideologies of masculinities, gender and generational relations, in: Bay, Edna / Donham, Donald (eds.): States of violence, Politics, youth and memory in contemporary Africa, University of Virginia Press, Chalottesville, pp.148-178.

Shefer, T. / Ratele, K. et al.
2005    Masculinities in South Africa, A critical review of contemporary literature on men’s sexuality, in: Gibson, D. / Hardon, A. (eds.): Rethinking masculinities, violence and AIDS, Het Spinhuis, Amsterdam, pp.73-86.

Shefer, T. / Ratele, K. / Strebel, A. et al. (eds.)
2007    From boys to men, Masculinities at risk, UCT Press, Cape Town.

Sideris, Tina
2004b    “You have to change and you don’t know how!”, Contesting what it means to be a man in a rural area of South Africa, in: African Studies, vol. 63, no. 1, pp.29-49.

2007    Post-apartheid South Africa, Gender, rights and the politics of recognition, New avenues for old forms of violence, in: Buur, Lars / Jensen, Steffen / Stepputat, Finn (eds.): The security development nexus, Expressions of sovereignty and securitization in Southern Africa, Publications of the Nordic Africa Institute/HSRC Press, Uppsala/Cape Town, pp.233-250.

Sonke Gender Justice Network
2008    Men for change, Health for all, Men, health and gender equality, A policy discussion paper, prepared for the National Department of Health, Cape Town.

2009    Report on the impact of Sonke Gender Justice Network “One man can” campaign in Limpopo, Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces, South Africa, Sonke, Cape Town.

Waetjen, Thembisa
2004 Masculinity and the struggle for nation in South Africa, University of Illinois Press, Urbana.


Hutchinson, Sharon Elaine / Jok, Madut Jok
2002    Gendered violence and the militarisation of ethnicity, A case study from South Sudan, in: Werbner, Richard (ed.): Postcolonial subjectivity in Africa, Zed Books, London, S.84-107.


Dolan, Chris
2000a    Do weak states undermine masculinities?, IDS Insights, Issue 35, Brighton.

2002    Collapsing masculinities and weak states, A case study of Northern Uganda, in: Cleaver, Frances (ed.): Masculinities matter! Men, gender and development, Zed Books, London, S.57-83.

Heald, Suzette
1999    Manhood and morality, Sex, violence and ritual in Gisu society, Routledge, London.

Wyrod, Robert
2008    Between women’s rights and men’s authority, Masculinity and shifting discourses on gender difference in urban Uganda, in: Gender and Society, vol. 22, no. 6, pp.799-823.


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