EU Missions Abroad
The focus of EU interventions undertaken so far within the framework of CFSP and ESDP has been on civilian missions. But the establishment of a Rapid Deployment Force and a joint EU armaments agency threatens to shift the focus to military actions. At the end of 2008 there were 13 ongoing EU missions abroad, including three military ones in Bosnia, Chad, and off the Somali coast, plus two paramilitary ones to reform the security sector in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Guinea-Bissau. Nine were completed, including three military missions: one in Macedonia and two in the Democratic Republic of Congo, as well as one paramilitary mission in the Sudanese region of Darfur. The civilian missions were mainly policing operations, including in Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Bosnia, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Palestine. EU civilians have also been stationed in Georgia since the Russia-Georgia War of August 2008, as well as at the Rafah border crossing in the Palestinian Gaza Strip.
Security as the EU Understands It