Gender-political situation in Austria
- Basic constitutional principles for equal treatment
- Equal treatment laws
- Other laws/statutory regulations
- Gender mainstreaming
- Initiatives, schemes and programmes, etc.
- Current political discourse
Brief description and evaluation
On an international scale, Austria appeared, for many years, to rank among the exemplary countries as far as gender equality policy is concerned. In 2009, however, the Global Gender Gap Report identified a dramatic collapse in Austria with respect to gender equality (plummeting from 29th place to 42nd). Much has happened since then, because Austria ranked 19th out of 136 countries in 2013. In the Economic Participation and Opportunity category, however, the country comes in at a mere 69th. This is due to the still high difference in income from gainful employment, the continued low number of women in leadership positions, and the unbroken poor opportunities for women to advance. Austria ranks 19th in the Political Empowerment category and even comes in first in the Educational Attainment category (World Economic Forum (2013): The Global Gender Gap Report 2013. Country Profiles. Available at: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GGGR13/GGGR_CountryProfiles_2013.pdf, Last accessed on 29.11.13).
Generally speaking, Austria has pursued a conservative gender equality regime to date. In the year 2000, the inception of gender mainstreaming led to the dissolution of the Ministry of Women's Affairs and the establishment of a men’s policy department under the remit of the Minister of Social Affairs. Coinciding with this, the promotion of women's projects was challenged and checks tightened. One reaction – not just with positive results – was to continue traditional women's policy under the banner of gender mainstreaming. In 2002, and then in 2008, following changes in government, the Ministry of Women's Affairs was reinstated as the Federal Ministry of Health and Women's Affairs and/or then the Ministry for Women in the Federal Chancellery. Each ministry has a GM representative and an Inter-ministerial Gender Mainstreaming/Gender Budgeting Work Group responsible for overall coordination. Gender mainstreaming/gender budgeting, women's policy, men's policy and equal treatment/anti-discrimination now appear to have achieved equal status, and there also appears to be widespread political consensus on this.
Core themes of the Austrian gender politics are labour market and education. Concerning the labour market, Austrian gender politics lay emphasis on women in leading positions, equal pay, and work-life-balance. Concerning education, the emphasis lies on occupational choices and gender sensitive pedagogy. With regard to Gender Mainstreaming, Gender Budgeting and legislation are focussed. Health and gendered violence represent further themes of Austrian gender politics.
In Austria, the term 'equal treatment' is used synonymously.
In Austria, the principle of equality has been anchored as a constitutional right since the passing of the Basic Law in 1867. Article 7 of the Austrian Constitution of 1920 establishes that “all citizens are equal before the law” and further expands on this general principle with the inclusion of the sentence: “There are no privileges of birth, gender, status, class or religion.”
1998: amendment to the Austrian Constitution resulting in the sentence referencing the principle of equality as stated in the Basic Law of 1867 (“All citizens are equal before the law”) being formulated for the first time with the intention of making equal treatment a government objective. The federal government, provinces and municipalities declare that it is permissible under formal law to adopt measures to promote absolute gender equality – and thus explicitly also unequal treatment to establish equality
Federal Equal Treatment Act
passed in 1993 for public service; unlike the equal treatment act for the private sector, it contains an explicit order to promote women as well as provisions and institutions designed to ensure absolute equal treatment; amended in the course of implementing the EU directives on equal treatment/anti-racism; since Jan. 2010, amended again with the following consequences: quota for women raised from 40 to 45 percent, time to file for sexual harassment extended from one to three years; pregnancy and motherhood discrimination now discrimination ex lege; detailed definition of the work group chair's right to participate in negotiations (meetings) of commissions, etc.; compensation for immaterial damages also paid if discrimination-based dismissal is contested. Significant improvements haven been incorporated into the Federal Equal Treatment Act since 2013: extended protection against discrimination; endured personal restrictions (erlittene persönliche Beeinträchtigung); extended limitation periods for harassment and sexual harassment; dialogue with non-governmental organisations. (Source and further information available at: http://www.bka.gv.at/site/5570/default.aspx, last accessed: 03.12.13).
Equal Treatment Act for the private sector:
since 1979: Equal Treatment Act for the private sector; first amended in 1985 and 1990 (scope of validity extended: equal treatment with respect to pay, the provision of voluntary social benefits and initial and further training provided by companies; approval of positive measures; sanctions; establishment of an Equal Treatment Commission; extension of the principle of equal treatment to include the foundation, course and termination of a contract of employment, as well as regulations governing the minimum levels of compensation for infringements; Equal Treatment Ombudswoman appointed); amended in August 2008 in the course of implementing the EU Equal Treatment Directive (delayed implementation; did not occur until one and a half years after expiry of the deadline for implementation); mandatory report “Equal Treatment in the Private Sector” every two years. Here too, significant changes have been made since 2011: “Through this amendment to the law, resulting in the statutory entrenchment of in-company income reports, Austria – alongside Sweden – has become a pioneer in the EU. The amendment includes e.g. a commitment to compile an income report for companies of a certain size. (…) Companies are dutifully bound to address the pay gaps between female and male employees – women can bring an action for discrimination more readily.”“ (Amendment to the 2011 Equal Treatment Act. Available at: http://www.bka.gv.at/site/5572/default.aspx, last accessed: 03.12.13).
Quota regulations/ Women in leading positions:
In Austria, quotas for women only exist within government-affiliated businesses: “The federal government made a commitment in March 2011 within the Council of Ministers to maintain a quota for women on supervisory boards within federal state-owned enterprises. In concrete terms, the agreed goal foresees a quota for women of 25% by the end of 2013, and of 35% by the end of 2018. The regulation applies to every enterprise in which the state holds a minimum 50-percent share. Overall, this affects 55 enterprises, 44 of which are fully-owned by the state that also sends all of the representatives to the supervisory board.” (Austrian Federal Ministry for Women and Public Service (2011): What models exist in Austria? Available at: http://www.bka.gv.at/site/6868/default.aspx, last accessed: 3.12.2013)
Equal Treatment Packages 1992/1993 cover:
- Improved statutory regulation of part-time employment
- Extension of care leave for people in gainful employment to look after a family member living in the same household
- Inclusion and consideration of child care periods in pension scheme
- Prohibition of indirect discrimination
- Prosecution of and compensation for sexual harassment at work
- Penalties for breaching the principle of gender-neutral advertising for job vacancies
- Duty to post the Equal Treatment Act on bulletin boards
- Representation of women in the Equal Treatment Commission
- Improvement of maternity legislation (esp. with respect to fixed-term employment contracts)
Improvements in the Labour Relations Act with respect to minimum pay, schemes for the promotion and development of women through shop agreements, adequate representation of women in works councils; works council committees for women and women's affairs; prohibition of discrimination for leisure time work; protection against dismissal and improvements for the cottage industry.
All nine federal states in Austria have passed their own equal treatment and anti-discrimination laws at different points in time (further information on this available at: http://www.frauen.bka.gv.at/site/5571/default.aspx, last accessed: 03.12.13).
- 1997: the National Council was the first parliament in Europe to pass a Protection against Violence Act, which allows perpetrators to be thrown out of their common home. The act has established the legal requirements for swiftly and efficiently protecting victims of domestic violence. Other improvements followed in the shape of the amended Security Police Act (2000) and the Enforcement Code (2004). A more comprehensive revision of the legal requirements came in the shape of the Second Protection against Violence Act (2009).
- 1997: a women's referendum is held. The demands relate to the equality of women and men in every area.
- 2001: The Council of Ministers passes the Objectivisation Act (Objektivierungsgesetz) with the aim of awarding positions in the public sector based on objective grounds. Female applicants who fail to be chosen among the final three for a vacancy no longer have any recourse in the event of a complaint. Until then, female applicants who had felt left out were able to complain through the Federal Equal Treatment Act.
- 2009: University Act: At present, 15 percent of university professors in Austria are women. The amended University Act requires that at least 40 percent of all positions at universities and in their bodies, such as the vice chancellor’s office, must be held by women. If the proportion of women is not maintained, the Working Group on Equal Treatment Issues (Arbeitskreis für Gleichbehandlungsfragen) can raise objection.
- 2010: increase in the proportion of women in public service: during the application process, up to 45 percent of the posts must be filled by women, and women applicants given precedence over their male counterparts, if they are deemed equally suitable candidates for the position or category.
- 2010: Austrian Corporate Governance Code: set of rules and regulations governing the responsible leadership and running of listed companies in Austria (the Code encourages the consideration of both genders as well as the inclusion of diversity on supervisory boards).
The basis for implementing gender mainstreaming at federal level is four Council of Minister resolutions:
- The Inter-ministerial Work Group for Gender Mainstreaming (IMAG GM) was set up by virtue of the first Council of Minister resolution of 11 July 2000 in order to implement gender mainstreaming at federal level.
- Through the Council of Minister resolution of 3 April 2002, the federal government approved the implementation of gender mainstreaming for the coming years on the basis of the recommendations of the IMAG GM.
- Following on from the previous resolutions, the third Council of Minister resolution on gender mainstreaming of 9 March 2004 contains requirements for specifically implementing gender mainstreaming at federal level.
- The Council of Minister resolution of 5 March 2008 affirmed the application of the two codes of practice compiled on behalf of the Minister of Women for implementing gender mainstreaming as part of legislative plans and in the field of budget preparation.
Moreover, in January 2009, the absolute equality of women and men in public budgeting was entrenched as a national objective in the constitution (Art. 13 Sect. 3 B-VG), and, from January 2013, the principle of impact orientation, especially in consideration of the absolute equality of women and men objective as one of the federal government's principles of budgeting (Art. 51 Sect. 8 B-VG) will come into force.
Since January 2010, the Law on Registered Partnerships (EPG) for homosexual couples has been in effect. By virtue of this law, they are treated in the same way as heterosexual couples with respect to tax law and pension entitlements, and also have the opportunity to register under one common name. Registered same-sex couples can also share health insurance with their partners.
2011 – Resolution on the sustainable implementation of gender mainstreaming: the key points include the entrenchment of gender mainstreaming in the department structures and the sustainable implementation of gender mainstreaming in legislative processes as well as the consideration of gender aspects for promotions and public procurement. Other fields of action include the gender-specific acquisition of data in departmental reports, studies and publications.
National Action Plan “Gender Equality on the Labour Market”
A National Action Plan (NAP) for Gender Equality on the Labour Market was agreed in the government agreement of 2008 in order to develop and implement concrete steps for the coming five years. This was presented on 30 June 2010 following pulsating rounds of talks involving representatives from the fields of science, business, public administration, politics and NGOs, discussions with experts – some of them from abroad – and intense negotiations with the social partners. It defines the federal government's strategy until 2013.
Moreover, the Austrian federal government is obliged to report to the National Council every other calendar year on the measures and activities it has undertaken to reduce forms of discrimination against women. The report focuses on the following areas: measures to create facilities that enable women and men to come to terms with their work-life balance; socio-political measures that reduce forms of discrimination against women with regard to the fact that they are or can become mothers; active measures to promote women in every area of society (especially on the labour market, in science, art and the promotion of art as well as in public service); general livelihood measures, above all in the event of old age, invalidity and unemployment; measures to enforce equal treatment in working life (Austrian Federal Ministry for Women and Public Service (2013): Reports. Available at: http://www.bka.gv.at/site/5556/default.aspx, last accessed: 03.12.13).
“Equal = Fair” campaign – improve women’s income:
Initiative for equal pay and income transparency. The new initiative of the Minister for Women and the Minister of Social Affairs specifies that wages and salaries should be made more transparent. The aim of the initiative is to bind companies with over 25 employees to publish anonymous payrolls within the company. Basic questionnaires are used to record the average wages and salaries of women and men.
Gender Now Initiative
Gender Days first took place in 2007. In 2009, Gender Days was developed further and became the Gender Now Initiative. It is an initiative of the Federal Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture in cooperation with the Women's Division at the Federal Chancellery and the Federal Ministry of Social Affairs and Consumer Protection, which focuses on a different issue each year. The initiative was launched in order to build gender awareness in schools. It aims to prepare current topics of relevance to (educational) policy in a gender-conscious manner for use by teachers and to raise awareness of the fact that teaching materials, background information, counselling and training offers are available all year round, not just at a specific time. The following focal points were established for the years 2009 to 2013: job orientation, migration, prevention of violence.
In Austria, Girls’ Day or Daughters’ Day is organised in different ways in the various Austrian provinces, some of which have been doing so since 2001. Girls’ Day is evaluated every year and it was possible to learn that the Girls’ Day measures are of value to the public service. Career guidance for girls irrespective of prevailing role models is also supported by Finde Deinen eigenen Weg (find your way) by the federal government.
Boys’ Day has been held in Austria every year since 2008. The Boys’ Day initiative, which was launched and is funded by the Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection, is held annually in cooperation with the Austrian counselling centres for men in every province and supported by the Federal Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture. Based on the perception of stereotypical gender roles, boys have little access to social fields of occupation. The aim of Boys’ Day is to make young men aware of these jobs.
Gender policy in Austria is well entrenched in the country’s laws even though there were certain delays in implementing the EU directives. Exactly how the implementation will turn out in practice will need to be monitored carefully.
It is very evident that gender policy, anti-discrimination policy and gender mainstreaming are seen as equal strategies for achieving gender equality/equal treatment of women and men. Unlike at federal level in Germany, the various approaches do not appear to be played off against each other here.
The focal points of gender equality policy in Austria are on the labour market and education. One of the focuses of gender mainstreaming can be found in gender budgeting issues and the impact assessment of laws.
A peculiar feature of Austrian politics is its self-contained men’s policy and its institutionalisation. Here, men appear to be becoming more the centre of attention as self-contained gender policy actors than in other European countries. Unlike in Germany, Austrian men’s policy does not compete with women’s policy and gender mainstreaming as an issue.
NGOs: political parties, civil society organisations
Through federal women’s organisations and corresponding women’s organisations in the individual provinces, women in the SPÖ form their own organisational units within the party.
Issues pursued by SPÖ women at federal level include: equal pay, income transparency, income-based child benefit, international work, paternity leave, the campaign: “Career Now: Further up the Ladder!”, career and education guidance, executive positions (e.g. binding quota), work-life balance.
In its 2013 party manifesto, the SPÖ presents gender policy in connection with the work-life balance (modern gender policy and a better work-life balance). The topics include: better opportunities for women in the world of work; breaking through the role clichés when choosing a career; investing in the expansion and quality of child care; more fathers for paternity leave; paid daddy month for all fathers (SPÖ (2013): 111 projects for Austria. 2013 SPÖ election manifesto. Available at: http://spoe.at/wahlprogramm, last accessed: 07.12.13).
Austrian's People's Party (ÖVP/Women's Offensive):
The Austrian People’s Party also has a women’s organisation at federal and province level. Under the slogan “Strong. Black. Female”, ÖVP women have formed a so-called women’s offensive. Under its banner of “Women can manage budgets, lend a hand and make decisions. Women have goals and success! WOMEN. GOALS. 2020 women within the ÖVP have developed a mission statement and established their goals until 2020. They are proposing that their (party) political demands be included in four areas of work: labour, education, family and being a woman. They define their image of women as follows: being a woman entails being different from men and that is a good thing. Women belonging to the People’s Party want to illustrate that the difference between the genders is a form of diversity and therefore of added value to society” (framework motion of the women of the ÖVP (2010): Women.Goals.2020. (Frauen.Ziele.2020) Available at: http://www.frauenoffensive.at/pdfs/51af5117a61eb.pdf, last accessed: 05.12.13).
One of the central issues of the Green Party in Austria is gender policy in connection with “women’s, social and health affairs”. In addition to women, the party cites disabled people, the family & 55plus, health and social affairs & labour issues as areas of interest. The issue of lesbian, gay and transgender is broached in the context of “human rights, security and justice”.
The Green Party in Austria addresses gender policy issues under the banner “This is what we say about women and equal treatment” The issues covered here are: quota regulations, work-life balance, promotion of top performances among women, fixed budgets for women’s refuges and victim protection facilities, the 10,000 (new) women’s jobs campaign, equal share in Federal Government and ministries. In its 2013 electoral manifesto, gender policy is included under the heading “Equal treatment is a matter of course. Equal sharing in every area is becoming a reality”. The topics covered here include: women’s quota, support on the labour market, fair wages, combating poverty, work-life balance, health policy (The Greens (2013): Clean environment. Clean policies. The electoral manifesto of the Greens. 2013 National Council election. Available at: https://www.gruene.at/partei/programm/wahlprogramme/wahlprogramm-lang-2013.pdf, last revised: 06.12.13).
A Green women’s organisation exists in Vienna, Salzburg and Tirol.
FeministAttac is one of the so-called cross-sectional groups of Attac. The group was founded in 2001. Its focus lies on the issue of gender aspects and the business sector, i.e. feminist criticism of neo-liberal globalisation, above all labour, GATS and the financial markets in this regard.
Attac (and/or the Gender Mainstreaming Body in Attac) provides gender coaching to its activists as a means of integrating the gender perspective into every field of work at Attac. Attac Austria had entrenched GM in its statues as early as 2001.
Austrian Federation of Trade Unions/ÖGB Women
The federal women’s department of the ÖGB works together with the women’s departments of the trade unions and the federal provinces to promote the interests of women, especially women employees. Contact persons and offices are available throughout Austria to provide support on issues and problems.
- Issues within the trade union movement
- Pay inequalities between women and men and their impact
- Women in executive positions
- Impact of the economic and financial crisis on women
- Gender mainstreaming as a strategy
- Work-life balance
- Social security safeguards for women
- Women and poverty.
- Women and taxes
National Council of Women Austria (BÖFV)
The BÖFV has been in existence since 1902 and is a non-partisan and non-denominational umbrella organisation for Austrian women’s associations. It represents these in the EWL (European Women’s Lobby) and the IWC (International Council of Women).
Austrian Frauenring (ÖFR)
Umbrella organisation for Austrian women’s associations; in existence since 1969; its members include women representatives from political parties, the women’s organisations of the trade unions as well as trade and industry institutions, the Catholic and Protestant churches, autonomous women’s groups and independent women’s organisations; overall, more than 40 member organisations; member of the EWL
Network of Austrian Counselling Centres for Women and Girls (FMBS)
Merger of 53 counselling centres for women and girls from all nine federal provinces; founded in 1995 as a non-profit association to enable common interests to be better represented and to facilitate an exchange of experiences; offices in Vienna and Innsbruck; counselling centres grew from autonomous women’s movement, predominantly set up in the 1980s and 1990s.
Federal Minister for Women and Public Service
The Federal Ministry of Women and Public Service is located in the Chancellery, i.e. there is no separate ministry. The minister’s tasks within women’s and gender equality policy are to: coordinate matters relating to women’s and gender equality policy and gender mainstreaming; the equality of women on the labour market; matters relating to the Equal Treatment Commission and the Equal Treatment Ombudsperson, the Federal Equal Treatment Commission and the Inter-Ministerial Work Group for Gender Mainstreaming.
The minister is assisted in her work in this field by the so-called Women’s Division of the Federal Chancellery. The minister’s six departments cover the following areas:
- Women’s policies and legal matters
- Public relations, public management, promotion of women’s projects
- Equal treatment in the private and public sectors
- Prevention of violence and women-specific legislation
- Women’s service, women migrants, budgetary and parliamentary coordination
- Socio-economic equality, international and EU matters
Its specific activities include: reports, gainful employment and the labour market, EU/international affairs, gender mainstreaming/gender budgeting, Gender Now Initiative (formerly Gender Days), violence against women/trafficking in women, equal treatment, Girls Day, mentoring, women migrants (incl. tradition-based violence against women), prostitution, divorce/separation
Services offered by the ministry: women’s service centre + intercultural service for women (helpline for information on issues specific to women), women’s helpline against violence, women’s advisory services (handbook + addresses in online mentor)
Federal Equal Treatment Commission
The Federal Equal Treatment Commission is an institute under the remit of the Minister for Women and Public Service in the Federal Chancellery. It is a specific administrative body of the federal government which can be contacted in cases of discrimination occurring within the realms of government service. In two senates, it addresses all issues in public service relating to gender equality, the promotion of women and equal treatment with no discrimination made based on ethnic origin, religion or ideology, age or sexual orientation. On submission of a petition or ex officio, the senates are required to compile reports on whether the principle of equal treatment has been breached. Senate I furthermore monitors compliance with the principle of the promotion of women.
Equal Treatment Commission
Based on the Act governing the Equal Treatment Commission and the Equal Treatment Ombudsperson (Bundesgesetz über die Gleichbehandlungskommission und die Gleichbehandlungsanwaltschaft – GBK/GAW Act), the Equal Treatment Commission – which comprises three senates - was established with the task of looking into questions relating to discrimination on the basis of the Equal Treatment Act. It operates as a special institution that aids the labour and social courts as well as the civil courts. When a petition is filed by an eligible applicant, the senates of the Equal Treatment Commission investigate – within their realms of responsibility – whether the principle of equal treatment has been breached. They can, however, also launch an official investigation ex officio. The senates also further the regulations on averting or settling legal disputes brought before court by offering a means of advising or mediating both prior to a case coming before a judge or even after the proceedings have commenced.
Senate I: equal treatment of women and men in employment and occupation
Senate II: equal treatment in employment and occupation and irrespective of ethnic origin, religion or ideology, age or sexual orientation (anti-discrimination)
Senate III: equal treatment in other areas irrespective of ethnic origin (anti-racism)
Ombuds Office for Equal Treatment
The Ombuds Office for Equal Treatment is a government institution that enforces the right to equal treatment and gender equality and also protection from discrimination. It performs its functions autonomously and independently on the basis of the Equal Treatment Act. From 1991 to 2004, its statutory mission was the equal treatment and equality of women and men. An amendment to the law in 2004 extended its responsibilities, which now include equal treatment irrespective of ethnic origin, religion, ideology, age or sexual orientation.
The tasks are fulfilled by three ombuspersons:
- Ombudsperson for equal treatment / gender equality in employment and occupation
- Ombudsperson for equal treatment in employment and occupation irrespective of ethnic origin, religion or ideology, age or sexual orientation
- Ombudsperson for equal treatment in other areas irrespective of ethnic origin, and for the equal treatment of women and men when dealing with goods and services
Its tasks are to:
- advise and support victims of discrimination to enforce their right to equal treatment
- inform and raise awareness in the fields of discrimination, equal treatment and equalityf
- urther develop the legal standards and to improve the situation within society
- to use services for multipliers as well as all people, institutions, organisations and companies dedicated to combating discrimination and upholding equal treatment
Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection
The Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection also concerns itself with gender equality policy issues. On the one hand, these relate to labour law issues: equal treatment, parental leave/parental part-time employment, hospice leave/care leave. On the other, men’s policy is under the remit of the Ministry of Labour.
The Department for Men’s Policy Issues within the ministry – an unparalleled institution in Europe – pursues a progressive men’s policy whose core issues are: “promoting awareness for equal partnerships, active fatherhood, forming a positive male identity among boys and young men, men's health, speaking out against violence of boys and men, the further development of male role models as well as offering a service for concerns specific to men.” The activities it pursues in achieving these goals include information campaigns, symposiums, the promotion of men’s counselling centres and other NGOs, the publication of the 2nd Austrian Men’s Report (which also contains the most recent data on men’s health) or the organisation of the annual Boys’ Day event.
Inter-Ministerial Work Group for Gender Mainstreaming/Budgeting (IMAGGMB)
The Inter-ministerial Work Group for Gender Mainstreaming (IMAG GM) was established on the basis of a resolution of the Council of Ministers of 11.7.2000. In 2009, it was merged with the IMAG for Gender Budgeting to form the IMAG GMB. The Federal Minister for Women and Public Service is the chair of the IMAG. The Work Group’s members are all the federal ministries, the supreme bodies, the GÖD and, since November 2007, a representative of the provinces.
The aims of the IMAG are to establish a foundation for implementing the GM strategy at federal level and to fulfil Austria’s international obligations.
- to support and assist the process of implementing GM in every department and at all political levels;
- the exchange of information and initiatives worth emulating in every department both in domestic and foreign examples of best practice;
- to develop criteria for implementing the GM strategy;
- to assist and evaluate ongoing projects, measures and laws with respect to the application of the GM goals;
- to define the range of tasks to be performed by the gender mainstreaming/gender budgeting representatives
The following are examples of what has been drafted and published to date: media handbook “Blickpunkt Gender” (Gender in Focus); field reports, e.g. gender mainstreaming in the ESF (2007), guidelines for gender mainstreaming in legislation, development partnership and the publication series “Qualitätsentwicklung Gender Mainstreaming” (Gender Mainstreaming Quality Development), tool for implementing gender budgeting in public administration.
Democracy Centre Vienna:
deals extensively with what it refers to as gender perspectives. The section on “Pionierinnen der Frauenbewegung – Frauen in der Politik” [Pioneers of the Women’s Movement – Women in Politics] (German only) contains short biographies on women who have dedicated themselves to the cause of women’s policies. The section on “Geschlechterdemokratie” [Gender Democracy] (German only) outlines gender mainstreaming issues and gender policy, and includes data, studies, publications and links. The “Lebensrealitäten” [Life’s Realities] (German only) section provides valuable information on the life realities of women and men, especially with respect to the working environment and care work.
Women's online Magazine "Ceiberweiber" [Cyber Women]
is a feminist online magazine for women’s policy issues run and published by Alexandra Bader which reports on numerous topics relating to women and gender equality. It is funded by the Ministry of Women. Due to its funding being cut back to one-fifth of its previous rate, the magazine is in danger of going out of business.
Monthly feminist magazine (in existence since 1983). Its online version is a seemingly endless source of interesting links and articles on the subject of women and gender equity. However, the magazine does not only report on so-called “women’s issues” but also on current political, social and cultural events from a feminist perspective.
Gender studies are offered at every major university. The academic centres are actively engaged in furnishing theories on which policies can be based. An overview of the respective institutes can be found at:
frauenfakten: this website provides an overview of all the women’s networks, groups and associations operating in Austria.
Austrian Federal Ministry for Women and Public Service: this page provides an overview of the key databases and women’s networks in Austria and elsewhere. Around 300 networks and countless initiatives, organisations and clubs exist in Austria that provide women with concrete support in their careers and advancement, make databases available or seek to network female experts. Numerous scientific and political initiatives and NGOs also deal with the issues of the promotion of women and equal opportunities.
ofra- online archiv frauenpolitik: ofra supplies all interested persons with information, original documents, images and posters from the field of institutional women’s policy. Austrian women’s and gender equality policies have thus been documented, and made comprehensible and available since the 1970s.
Description of state of source material
The players, laws, advisory services etc. are all very easy to locate. There are numerous government-funded websites.
Citing of relevant sources
Website links have always been cited directly in context.
Birgit Sauer: Ein ewiges Pilotprojekt? Gender Mainstreaming in Österreich [An eternal pilot project? Gender mainstreaming in Austria]. Meuser, Michael/Neusüß, Claudia (editors): Gender Mainstreaming. Konzepte – Handlungsfelder – Instrumente [Gender Mainstreaming – Concepts – Fields of Activity – Instruments], Bonn (Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung), 2004, p. 169-181
Leah Carola Czollek: Gender Mainstreaming aus queerer und interkultureller Perspektive - eine konkrete Utopie [Gender mainstreaming from a queer and intercultural perspective – a concrete utopia], in: Perko Gudrun/Leah Carola Czollek (editors): Lust am Denken: Queeres im experimentellen Raum jenseits kultureller Verortungen [An appetite for thought: queer aspects in an experimental space devoid of cultural localisation], Cologne, 2004
This study was conducted by Tanja Berger und Pamela Dorsch and comissioned by the Gunda Werner Institute of the Heinrich Böll Foundation in 2010. Last updated 2013.
All images, except marked otherwise Public Domain CC0